When you access SharePoint web apps from the SP sever, it keeps on prompting for authentication. I wish the installation of SharePoint could have taken care off.
Anyways, you can run this to apply the change on the SharePoint servers.
Run this power shell command
New-ItemProperty HKLM:\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa -Name "DisableLoopbackCheck" -value "1" -PropertyType dword
You may have to restart the servers and will have run this from all of your SharePoint servers.
You can also navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa in registry and create the dword32 for DisableLoopbackCheck, modify the value to 1.
I would prefer to use Power Shell any given day.